Publikationer om GC och metodiken

Analysis of the Gas Phase of Cigarette Smoke by Gas Chromatography Coupled with UV-Diode Array Detection

Dimitris G. Hatzinikolaou, Verner Lagesson, Anastasia J. Stavridou, Aristea E. Pouli, Ludmila Lagesson-Andrasko, and John C. StavridesAnalytical Chemistry 2006  78 (13), 4509-4516

A gas chromatography method, coupled with diode array photometric spectral detection in the ultraviolet region (167−330 nm), was developed for the analysis of the gas phase of cigarette smoke. The method enabled us to identify more than 20 volatiles present in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke. In that way, all major volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes, conjugated dienes, ketones, sulfides, furans, and single-ring aromatics), as well as nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), can be analyzed in a straightforward manner through a single chromatographic run of <50-min duration. The method can easily be applied by the introduction of a small volume of the gas-phase stream into the GC injection loop directly through the smoking apparatus exhaust circuit, thus providing an excellent alternative to available methods, which usually require extraction or concentration steps prior to any chromatographic analysis. Furthermore, all problems concerning aging of the gas phase are eliminated. Twelve compounds (including NO) were chosen for quantification through the use of appropriate calibration standards. Comparison of the vapor phase yields of these compounds for the reference cigarette Kentucky 1R4F with already reported data indicates that this method is very reliable as far as accuracy and reproducibility of the results are concerned. Finally, the proposed methodology was used to compare the concentration of these cigarette smoke gas-phase constituents among individual puffs.

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Quantitative determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor dust using gas chromatography-UV spectrometry

Anders Nilsson, Verner Lagesson, Carl-Gustaf Bornehag, Jan Sundell, Christer Tagesson

Environment International, Volume 31, Issue 8, 2005, Pages 1141-1148, ISSN 0160-4120,

A novel technique, gas chromatography-UV spectrometry (GC-UV), was used to quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in settled dust from 389 residences in Sweden. The dust samples were thermally desorbed in an inert atmosphere and evaporated compounds were concentrated by solid phase micro extraction and separated by capillary GC. Eluting compounds were then detected, identified, and quantified using a diode array UV spectrophotometer. Altogether, 28 compounds were quantified in each sample; 24 of these were found in more than 50% of the samples. The compounds found in highest concentrations were saturated aldehydes (C5–C10), furfuryl alcohol, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), 2-furaldehyde, and benzaldehyde. Alkenals were also found, notably 2-butenal (crotonaldehyde), 2-methyl-propenal (methacrolein), hexenal, heptenal, octenal, and nonenal. The concentrations of each of the 28 compounds ranged between two to three orders of magnitude, or even more. These results demonstrate the presence of a number of VOCs in indoor dust, and provide, for the first time, a quantitative determination of these compounds in a larger number of dust samples from residents. The findings also illustrate the potential use of GC-UV for analysing volatile compounds in indoor dust, some of which are potential irritants (to the skin, eyes or respiratory system) if present at higher concentrations. The potential use of GC-UV for improving survey and control of the human exposure to particle-bound irritants and other chemicals is inferred.

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Qualitative determination of compounds adsorbed on indoor dust particles using GC-UV and GC-MS after thermal desorption

Lagesson, H.V., Nilsson, A. & Tagesson, C. Qualitative determination of compounds adsorbed on indoor dust particles using GC-UV and GC-MS after thermal desorption.  Chromatographia 52,  621–630 (2000).

Fifteen indoor dust samples were analysed qualitatively to determine the compounds adsorbed on the surfaces of the particles. The analyses were performed by GC-MS and GC-UV after thermal desorption at 150°C. A total of 192 different compounds with boiling points from about 50°C to 250°C were identified or classified. The results from the two methods, which were carried out under similar conditions of thermal desorption and gas chromatographic separation, were complementary. GC-MS clearly showed better results for non-aromatic compounds such as alkanes, chlorinated hydrocarbons, acids, esters and alcohols, but for aldehydes and compounds containing unconjugated double bonds the two methods were about equally successful. However, for aromatic or conjugated compounds, the GC-UV method had a clear advantage. Also two iodonated compounds were determined only by the GC-UV technique. These findings indicate that the combined use of GC-UV and GC-MS is appropiate for the analysis of chemical compounds adsorbed on indoor dust particles. 

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Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Exhaled Breath for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

Peter J. Mazzone, Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Exhaled Breath for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer, Journal of Thoracic Oncology, Volume 3, Issue 7, 2008, Pages 774-780, ISSN 1556-0864

Volatile organic compounds are able to be detected in the exhaled breath by a variety of sensing techniques. These volatiles may be produced by cellular metabolic processes, or inhaled/absorbed from exogenous sources. Lung cancer cells may produce and process these compounds different than normal cells. The differences may be detectable in the breath. The following manuscript will review the evidence supporting the premise that a unique chemical signature can be detected in the breath of patients with lung cancer, discuss the results of studies using mass spectrometry and nonspecific chemical sensing techniques to detect the unique lung cancer signature, and speculate on the advancements that must occur to develop a breath test accurate enough to be clinically useful.

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Exhaled breath analysis in disease detection

Ting Chen, Tiannan Liu, Ting Li, Hang Zhao, Qianming Chen, Exhaled breath analysis in disease detection, Clinica Chimica Acta, Volume 515, 2021, Pages 61-72, ISSN 0009-8981.

Investigating the use of exhaled breath analysis to diagnose and monitor different diseases has attracted much interest in recent years. This review introduces conventionally used methods and some emerging technologies aimed at breath analysis and their relevance to lung disease, airway inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, metabolic disorders and kidney diseases. One section correlates breath components and specific diseases, whereas the other discusses some unique ideas, strategies, and devices to analyze exhaled breath for the diagnosis of some common diseases. This review aims to briefly introduce the potential application of exhaled breath analysis for the diagnosis and screening of various diseases,  thereby providing a new avenue for the detection of non-invasive diseases.

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VOC breath biomarkers in lung cancer

Yannick Saalberg, Marcus Wolff, VOC breath biomarkers in lung cancer, Clinica Chimica Acta, Volume 459, 2016, Pages 5-9, ISSN 0009-8981.

This review provides an overview of  volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are considered lung  cancer biomarkers for diagnostic breath analysis. It includes results of scientific publications from 1985 to 2015. The identified VOCs are listed and ranked according to their occurrence of nomination. The applied detection and sampling methods are specified but not evaluated. Possible draggable=”false” reasons for the different results of the studies are stated. Among the most frequently emerging biomarkers are  2-butanone and  1-propanol as well as  isoprene ethylbenzene styrene and  hexanalthereby providing a new avenue for the detection of non-invasive diseases.

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Selective Detection with UV Spectroscopy in Gas Chromatography

Ronda Gras, Jim Luong, Robert A. Shellie

Using UV troscopy as a selective detection approach in gas chromatography (GC) has been demonstrated here with a diode array detector (DAD). The benefits of using an UV detector in GC were realized through effective thermal management and inertness improvement. The approach deployed in this study was proven to be effective for either tandem or parallel detection and has the potential to be used in chromatographic separations that require stringent, narrow bandwiths, such as comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC).

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Quantitative Characterization of the Molecular Absorption Spectra in the Ultraviolet Region by Gas Chromatography

Ludmila Lagesson-Andrasko, Verner Lagesson & Jan Andrasko

Pages 2073-2084 | Received 10 Oct 2017, Accepted 23 Nov 2017, Published online: 16 Apr 2018

The aim of this study was to obtain quantitative characteristics of the ultraviolet absorption spectra as the molecular absorptivity at the wavelength of maximum absorbance. Organic as well as inorganic compounds were explored. A gas chromatography—ultraviolet absorption instrument has been used in the quantitative study of molecular ultraviolet absorption spectra in the vapour phase.

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