Promising Clinical Potential for Diagnosing Various Diseases and Medical Conditions

Lung Diseases

  • Lung Cancer: Specific VOC profiles in breath samples have been associated with lung cancer, potentially aiding in early detection and monitoring. 1
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Breath analysis can provide insights into COPD progression and severity. 2
  • Asthma: VOC patterns in breath samples may indicate asthma severity and inflammation. 3

Gastrointestinal Diseases

  • Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): Certain VOCs can indicate the presence of GERD and its severity. 4
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): Breath analysis may help differentiate between IBS subtypes and healthy controls. 5
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): VOC analysis might aid in distinguishing between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. 6

Liver Diseases

  • Liver Cirrhosis: Changes in VOC concentrations can provide information about liver cirrhosis and its progression. 7
  • Hepatic Encephalopathy: VOC analysis might help in diagnosing and monitoring this neurological complication of liver disease. 8

Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders

  • Diabetes: VOC profiles such as acetone and isoprene can differ between individuals with diabetes and healthy individuals. 9
  • Obesity: Breath analysis may provide insights into metabolic changes associated with obesity. 10

Kidney Diseases

  • Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): Breath analysis of VOCs has shown potential for early detection and monitoring of CKD. 11

Neurological Disorders

  • Parkinson’s Disease: Certain VOCs in breath samples and odor could be indicative of Parkinson’s disease. 12
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: VOC analysis might offer insights into Alzheimer’s disease and its progression. 13

Infectious Diseases

  • Respiratory Infections: VOC analysis might help differentiate between various respiratory infections. 14
  • Helicobacter pylori Infection: VOC profiles could indicate the presence of this bacterial infection in the stomach. 15

Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Heart Failure: VOC analysis may assist in diagnosing and monitoring heart failure. 16


1.Keogh RJ, Riches JC. The Use of Breath Analysis in the Management of Lung Cancer: Is It Ready for Primetime? Curr Oncol. 2022 Sep 30;29(10):7355-7378. doi: 10.3390/curroncol29100578. PMID: 36290855; PMCID: PMC9600994.

2.Parris BA, O’Farrell HE, Fong KM, Yang IA. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer: common pathways for pathogenesis. J Thorac Dis. 2019 Oct;11(Suppl 17):S2155-S2172. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2019.10.54. PMID: 31737343; PMCID: PMC6831920.

3.Ratiu IA, Ligor T, Bocos-Bintintan V, Mayhew CA, Buszewski B. Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath as Fingerprints of Lung Cancer, Asthma and COPD. J Clin Med. 2020 Dec 24;10(1):32. doi: 10.3390/jcm10010032. PMID: 33374433; PMCID: PMC7796324.

4.Poniewierka E, Pleskacz M, Łuc-Pleskacz N, Kłaniecka-Broniek J. Halitosis as a symptom of gastroenterological diseases. Prz Gastroenterol. 2022;17(1):17-20. doi: 10.5114/pg.2022.114593. Epub 2022 Mar 18. PMID: 35371354; PMCID: PMC8942002.

5.Rana SV, Malik A. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Jun 28;20(24):7587-601. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i24.7587. PMID: 24976698; PMCID: PMC4069289.

6.Van Malderen K, De Winter BY, De Man JG, De Schepper HU, Lamote K. Volatomics in inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. EBioMedicine. 2020 Apr;54:102725. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102725. Epub 2020 Apr 21. PMID: 32330874; PMCID: PMC7177032.

7.Lang AL, Beier JI. Interaction of volatile organic compounds and underlying liver disease: a new paradigm for risk. Biol Chem. 2018 Oct 25;399(11):1237-1248. doi: 10.1515/hsz-2017-0324. PMID: 29924722; PMCID: PMC6181143.

8.O’Hara ME, Fernández Del Río R, Holt A, Pemberton P, Shah T, Whitehouse T, Mayhew CA. Limonene in exhaled breath is elevated in hepatic encephalopathy. J Breath Res. 2016 Nov 21;10(4):046010. doi: 10.1088/1752-7155/10/4/046010. PMID: 27869108; PMCID: PMC5500822.

9.Nelson, N., Lagesson, V., Nosratabadi, A.  et al. Exhaled Isoprene and Acetone in Newborn Infants and in Children with Diabetes Mellitus. Pediatr Res  44, 363–367 (1998). h.ttps://

10.Anderson JC. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Dec;23(12):2327-34. doi: 10.1002/oby.21242. Epub 2015 Nov 2. PMID: 26524104; PMCID: PMC4737348.

11.Seong SH, Kim HS, Lee YM, Kim JS, Park S, Oh J. Exploration of Potential Breath Biomarkers of Chronic Kidney Disease through Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Metabolites. 2023 Jul 11;13(7):837. doi: 10.3390/metabo13070837. PMID: 37512544; PMCID: PMC10385797.

12.Trivedi DK, Sinclair E, Xu Y, Sarkar D, Walton-Doyle C, Liscio C, Banks P, Milne J, Silverdale M, Kunath T, Goodacre R, Barran P. Discovery of Volatile Biomarkers of Parkinson’s Disease from Sebum. ACS Cent Sci. 2019 Apr 24;5(4):599-606. doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.8b00879. Epub 2019 Mar 20. PMID: 31041379; PMCID: PMC6487537.

13.Ubeda C, Vázquez-Carretero MD, Luque-Tirado A, Ríos-Reina R, Rubio-Sánchez R, Franco-Macías E, García-Miranda P, Calonge ML, Peral MJ. Fecal Volatile Organic Compounds and Microbiota Associated with the Progression of Cognitive Impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Dec 31;24(1):707. doi: 10.3390/ijms24010707. PMID: 36614151; PMCID: PMC9821163.

14.Kamal F , Kumar S, Singanayagam A, Edwards M, Romano A, Veslkov K, Laponogov I, Donaldson G, Johnston S, Wedzicha J, Hanna G,B. European Respiratory Journal 2018 52: PA5301; DOI:  10.1183/13993003.congress-2018.PA5301.

15.Kusters JG, van Vliet AH, Kuipers EJ. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2006 Jul;19(3):449-90. doi: 10.1128/CMR.00054-05. PMID: 16847081; PMCID: PMC1539101.

16.Cikach FS Jr, Dweik RA. Cardiovascular biomarkers in exhaled breath. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Jul-Aug;55(1):34-43. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2012.05.005. PMID: 22824108; PMCID: PMC4205725.